Chat with girls in iceland Rittenhouse is an expert in blast engineering from the international consulting engineering firm Weidlinger Associates and has been the blast engineer for a of embassies and government buildings. He has been called to discuss such problems as the Oklahoma City bombing and the World Trade Center calamity. CNN: When you learned about the airplane hits and saw the pictures, what did you think about the structural chah of the World Trade Center buildings?
We were concerned about the damage and in getting the people out in time before some type of collapse occurred. Like most people, I did not want to believe that a complete collapse could occur.
But these were large bombs, strategically placed -- the bomb being the airplane and the placement being in a vulnerable spot in the building. The port authority has worked to secure the perimeter around the base of the building so the only way to attack the building is at a higher elevation -- such as an air attack. The vertical load bearing members and the toc elements called "beams.
The following fire further damaged the support columns. So it was a two step event; initial damage by plane and further damage or subsequent loss of structural stability that caused the building to fail.
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One is the structural engineering --how it was deed. And how it fell is really a phenomenon. The other reason is because the impact zone was so high up in the building that the weight of the uppermost floors fell onto the impact zone. Had the impact zone been lower in the building, the structure may have fallen in a tree-like effect, rather than crushing bear chat on itself.
Is this more or less unique for these two buildings? They are very big buildings.
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They were carrying a lot of weight. And so the structure was acting as it was deed. In most buildings, you might be able to lose a column and have the building remain standing for a period of time. But given the structure of these buildings, and that is called a "tube structure," the remaining structural elements were able to carry the load. A tube structure building is like a garbage can, very rigid around the outside tor once the damage starts, it is very texting friend to pass the down times to crush it.
And this time that time to crush, that is, the time to achieve xhat instability, was about an hour. I think that if the fireball was not so tpd, that they could have contained the fire. Fires are meant to be fought in localized areas. In other words, if a fire breaks out in a 15th floor, the sprinklers will go off on the 15th and 16th floors and so on, up the building as required to fight local fire.
However in this case, there were fires located on 15 to 20 different floors. So there was never enough water to arrest the fire to prevent structural instability.
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How safe is it really to be in the upper levels of such a tall building during an emergency? And every building has an emergency egress plan. The time to egress the WTC, for example, is approximately two hours.
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And that is why we have requirements to fireproof buildings for one or two hours to allow orderly egress. Had the building collapse occurred two to four hours after the initial event, they would have been able to evacuate everybody.
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This was not a conventional fire. Other systems have been investigated but have been recalled because of other health risks. So the current water deployment system may be the best we have.
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Perhaps we need more water. And do we know yet how many buildings will have to be demolished when all is said and done? There are engineers from the Structural Engineering Association of New York SEAONY as well as other local engineering firms, such as my own, that have volunteered to inspect buildings and determine if they are safe for rescue personnel and subsequent tenants. Damage from aircraft parts, the fireball explosion, the building falling itself, causing damage to other buildings, the ground shaking, and potentially high winds could now cause other tor to fall.
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You have to be concerned about the stability of the neighboring buildings. We don't want them to fall on rescue people.
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You have to be concerned that removing rubble doesn't collapse on air pockets below where victims might be. You have to be careful that vibrations from machinery do not tood further failures. So many of the rod efforts are being done free isex chat hand and small tools to quickly get to victims.
In Mexico City, there was once an earthquake where up to eight days later, they found survivors, many of them infants, located in the hospital. So there is a good chance that people who are located may still found, though it is a dim chance.
That area of Manhattan has many underground tunnels where people could be. We just need to get to them.
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Is it possible that people have fallen into the basements with debris on top of them? So there is a strong possibility that if they can get to them, they will be people there. Unfortunately there is a lot of debris and now water circulating as they fight the fires. So it is possible that these void places where people are located could be filling xhat water. How is that possible, that such massive buildings are now nearly gone?
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I'm sure a lot of it has filled the hole that was the basement. It is as surprising to chat during pens game xxx as well, but had they fallen over, it would have caused greater damage and far many more deaths. I have been pleased at how people have united to help in their own way either rescue workers, or fellow engineers, or individuals who are lining the streets with thank you cards to show appreciation to the rescue workers.
I hope that we can rebuild. If I can be of any help, please contact me. Our Web site is: www. Tod Rittenhouse ed CNN. The above is an edited transcript of the interview on Thursday, September 13, Subscribe to one of our news e-mail lists. address:.
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